The material of your
presentation should be concise, to the point and tell an interesting story.
In addition to the obvious things like content and visual aids, the following
are just as important as the audience will be subconsciously taking them
• Your voice - how you say it is as important as
what you say
• Body language - a subject in its own right and
something about which much has been written and said. In essence, your
body movements express what your attitudes and thoughts really are.
• Appearance - first impressions influence the
audience's attitudes to you. Dress appropriately for the occasion.
As with most personal skills oral communication cannot be taught.
Instructors can only point the way. So as always, practice is
essential, both to improve your skills generally and also to
make the best of each individual presentation you make.
Prepare the structure of the talk carefully and logically, just as you
would for a written report. What are:
• the objectives of the talk?
• the main points you want to make?
Make a list of these two things as your starting point.
Write out the presentation in rough, just like a first draft of a written
report. Review the draft. You will find things that are irrelevant or
superfluous - delete them. Check the story is consistent and flows smoothly.
If there are things you cannot easily express, possibly because of doubt
about your understanding, it is better to leave them unsaid.
Never read from a script. It is also unwise to have
the talk written out in detail as a prompt sheet - the chances are you
will not locate the thing you want to say amongst all the other text.
You should know most of what you want to say - if you don't then you
should not be giving the talk! So prepare cue cards which have key words
and phrases (and possibly sketches) on them. Postcards are ideal for
this. Don't forget to number the cards in case you drop them.
Remember to mark on your cards the visual aids that go with them so
that the right OHP or slide is shown at the right time
Rehearse your presentation - to yourself at first and then in front
of some colleagues. The initial rehearsal should consider how the words
and the sequence of visual aids go together. How will you make effective
use of your visual aids?
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Greet the audience (for example, 'Good morning, ladies and gentlemen'),
and tell them who you are. Good presentations then follow this formula:
• tell the audience what you are going to tell them,
• then tell them,
• at the end tell them what you have told them.
Keep to the time allowed. If you can, keep it short. It's better to
under-run than over-run. As a rule of thumb, allow 2 minutes for each
general overhead transparency or Powerpoint slide you use, but longer
for any that you want to use for developing specific points. 35mm slides
are generally used more sparingly and stay on the screen longer. However,
the audience will get bored with something on the screen for more than
5 minutes, especially if you are not actively talking about it. So switch
the display off, or replace the slide with some form of 'wallpaper'
such as a company logo.
Stick to the plan for the presentation, don't be tempted to digress
- you will eat up time and could end up in a dead-end with no escape!
Unless explicitly told not to, leave time for discussion - 5 minutes
is sufficient to allow clarification of points. The session chairman
may extend this if the questioning becomes interesting.
At the end of your presentation ask if there are any questions - avoid
being terse when you do this as the audience may find it intimidating
(ie it may come across as any questions? - if there are, it shows you
were not paying attention). If questions are slow in coming, you can
start things off by asking a question of the audience - so have one
Speak clearly. Don't shout or whisper - judge the acoustics of the room.
Don't rush, or talk deliberately slowly. Be natural - although not conversational.
Deliberately pause at key points - this has the effect of emphasising
the importance of a particular point you are making.
Avoid jokes - always disastrous unless you are a natural expert.
To make the presentation interesting, change your delivery, but not
to obviously, eg:
• pitch of voice
Use your hands to emphasise points but don't indulge in to much hand
waving. People can, over time, develop irritating habits. Ask colleagues
occasionally what they think of your style.
Look at the audience as much as possible, but don't fix on an individual
- it can be intimidating. Pitch your presentation towards the back of
the audience, especially in larger rooms.
Don't face the display screen behind you and talk to it. Other annoying
• Standing in a position where you obscure the screen. In fact,
positively check for anyone in the audience who may be disadvantaged
and try to accommodate them.
• Muttering over a transparency on the OHP projector plate an
not realising that you are blocking the projection of the image. It
is preferable to point to the screen than the foil on the OHP (apart
from the fact that you will probably dazzle yourself with the brightness
of the projector)
Avoid moving about too much. Pacing up and down can unnerve the audience,
although some animation is desirable.
Keep an eye on the audience's body language. Know when to stop and also
when to cut out a piece of the presentation.
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Visual aids significantly improve the interest of a presentation. However,
they must be relevant to what you want to say. A careless design or
use of a slide can simply get in the way of the presentation. What you
use depends on the type of talk you are giving. Here are some possibilities:
• Overhead projection transparencies (OHPs)
• 35mm slides
• Computer projection (Powerpoint, applications such as Excel,
• Video, and film,
• Real objects - either handled from the speaker's bench or passed
• Flip~chart or blackboard - possibly used as a 'scratch-pad'
to expand on a point
Keep it simple though - a complex set of hardware can result in confusion
for speaker and audience. Make sure you know in advance how to operate
equipment and also when you want particular displays to appear. Sometimes
a technician will operate the equipment. Arrange beforehand what is
to happen and when and what signals you will use. Edit your slides as
carefully as your talk - if a slide is superfluous then leave it out.
If you need to use a slide twice, duplicate it.
Slides and OHPs should contain the minimum information necessary. To
do otherwise risks making the slide unreadable or will divert your audience's
attention so that they spend time reading the slide rather than listening
Try to limit words per slide to a maximum of 10. Use a reasonable size
font and a typeface which will enlarge well.
Typically use a minimum 18pt Times Roman on OHPs, and preferably larger.
A guideline is: if you can read the OHP from a distance of 2 metres
(without projection) then it's probably OK
Avoid using a diagram prepared for a technical report in your talk.
It will be too detailed and difficult to read.
Use colour on your slides but avoid orange and yellow which do not show
up very well when projected. For text only, white or yellow on blue
is pleasant to look at and easy to read. Books on presentation techniques
often have quite detailed advice on the design of slides. If possible
consult an expert such as the Audio Visual Centre.
Avoid adding to OHPs with a pen during the talk - it's messy and the
audience will be fascinated by your shaking hand! On this point, this
is another good reason for pointing to the screen when explaining a
slide rather than pointing to the OHP transparency.
Room lighting should be considered. Too much light near the screen will
make it difficult to see the detail. On the other hand, a completely
darkened room can send the audience to sleep. Try to avoid having to
keep switching lights on and off, but if you do have to do this, know
where the light switches are and how to use them.
enjoy yourself. The audience will be on your side and want to hear what
you have to say!
(Adapted from : http://lorien.ncl.ac.uk/ming/Dept/Tips/present/comms.htm)