There are several different referencing systems, with variations within each. Check with your tutor which system is preferred on your course/in your department and also ask if there are any guidelines available.
THAT NONE OF THE INFORMATION BELOW APPLIES TO ENGLISH LITERATURE/LANGUAGE
STUDIES STUDENTS. PLEASE CONSULT YOUR FACULTY TUTORS FOR GUIDANCE.
THE HARVARD METHOD
This is the most commonly used system, preferred by the majority of departments here at Birmingham City University.
Within your text, you simply state
the SURNAME of the author (without an initial or first name), the YEAR
OF PUBLICATION, and sometimes the PAGE NUMBER (separated from the date
by a colon, or written p.78). For example:
The full details of the source then appear at the end of the work, in your references section (maybe referred to as bibliography, or primary/secondary sources: check with your tutor).
Your references must be strictly alphabetical.
This is how you make a full reference to various types of source material available. The first is analysed in detail, as the criteria here apply to most other references.
Bhatia, V. (1993) Analysing
Genre: Language Use in Professional Settings.
Book with editor
This is how you refer to a book which has an editor and consists of various articles by different authors:
Bailey, K.M. (1990) 'The use of diary studies in teacher education programs' in J.C Richards and D. Nunan (eds.). Second Language Teacher Education. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Note that the title of the article is in
normal print and inverted commas, that the initials of the editors (eds.)
come first, and that the title of the book they have edited is in italics.
Gaies, S.J. (1983). 'The investigation of language classroom processes'. TESOL Quarterly 17:205-17
The name of the article comes first, followed by the name of the journal in italics, and then the issue number of the journal and the page numbers.
Gower, D. (1997). Advantages of
being left-handed [online]. London: Marylebone Cricket Club. Available
You'll notice that most of the entry
is similar to a book, but it's also very important that you put the
full internet address and the date that you accessed it (as information
is often regularly updated). Again, if there doesn't seem to be a particular
author, then treat the organisation as the author.
If the journalist is identified
(which is usually the case):
If not, simply:
Citing secondary sources
If a source you are using cites
another source, and you yourself make a reference to this secondary
source, how it would appear in your references depends on how it is
used. The following forms part of the advice given by
Minor citation from a secondary source
If the secondary source (Morris in the example below) is claimed only as an authority to support your argument, mention the secondary publication as part of the in-text citation:
Morris' study (cited in Smith 1995, p. 23) explained why ...
and only show the primary source
(Smith) in the bibliography, that is:
Significant citation from a secondary source
If you are using actual words quoted directly from the secondary source (Morris) in the primary source (Smith), or if you wish to make significant use of the ideas or information offered by the secondary source, cite the secondary source in the text:
As described in Smith (1995, p. 23), Morris (1993) presents this critical process in detail ...
and show both primary and secondary references in the reference list using Smith's reference list to provide the reference for Morris:
Morris, M.R. 1993, 'Student performance and the use of computer mediated communication in distance education', Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 13-25.
Smith, A.M. 1995, Technology options, CQU Press, Rockhampton.
For other types of reference, try one of the links at the bottom of the page, or check with your tutor or with us.
THE VANCOUVER METHOD
In your text, this method uses a
number, either in brackets or superscript, instead of the year of publication.
As always, if you are asked to use this method, check the exact reference format with your tutor.
Here is an example of a full reference in the Vancouver Method; there are some minor variations to the Harvard Method:
Crawley, John. The Transition from County to Country (Preston: Red Rose, 1996)
Notice that the full name of the author, as it appears on the book, is given, and that the place of publication, publisher and year of publication are together in brackets).
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at City North: moodle.bcu.ac.uk/course/category.php?id=27
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